About North Kalimantan
North Kalimantan is a province in Indonesia located in the northern part of the island of Borneo. This province is bordered directly by neighboring countries, namely the States of Sabah and Sarawak, East Malaysia. At present, North Kalimantan is Indonesia’s youngest province, officially adopted as a province in the DPR plenary meeting on 25 October 2012.
Historically the countries in the northern part of the island of Borneo, which included Sarawak, Brunei and most of Sabah, were the mandala regions of the Sultanate of Brunei. From the Hindu period to the formation of the Bulungan Sultanate, the province of North Kalimantan to Kinab maturity in Sabah was a mandala region of the Berau state called Nagri Marancang, which borders the Brunei state mandala. But lately Nagri Marancang became an area of influence of the Sulu Sultanate and the Suluk Tribe began to settle in the area. Then the British colonial ruled the northern Nagri Marancang and the Dutch controlled the southern Nagri Marancang (now the province of Kaltara).
The North Kalimantan region is a former Bulungan Sultanate region which was established in 1731. The first king of the Bulungan Sultanate originated from Brunei. The area of the Sultanate of Bulungan is a former state-owned Berau area that escaped. Meanwhile, the Berau Kingdom according to Hikayat Banjar was included in the influence of the Banjala Sultanate mandala since ancient times, when the Banjar Sultanate was still called the Dipa Negara Kingdom (Hindu period). Until 1850, Bulungan (Kaltara) was still under the influence of the Sulu Sultanate (a former subordinate state of Brunei). But in 1853, Bulungan (Kaltara) was included in the Dutch area of influence. Based on the agreement of the Banjar Sultanate with the Dutch VOC that was made on August 13, 1787 and May 4, 1826, the Banjar Sultanate legally became the Dutch VOC protectorate area and the areas claimed as the Banjar vazal were surrendered as Dutch VOC property, the Company made boundaries its territory in Borneo (Kalimantan) based on the claims boundaries of the Banjar Sultanate, namely the westernmost region is the state of Sintang and the easternmost region is the state of Berau (covering the Gunung Tabur Sultanate, the Tanjung / Sambaliung Sultanate, the Bulungan Sultanate & the Tidung district). Based on the map of the Dutch East Indies in 1878 at that time showed the position of the border far more north than the Kaltara-Sabah border today, because it covers all the Tidung tribes in the Tawau region.