Sulawesi (or old designation in English: Celebes) is an island in the territory of Indonesia which is located between the island of Kalimantan and the Maluku Islands. With an area of 174,600 km², Sulawesi is the 11th largest island in the world. In Indonesia only Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Papua are wider in area than Sulawesi, while in terms of population only Java and Sumatra are larger in population than Sulawesi.
The name Sulawesi is thought to originate from the words sula (island) and iron, which may refer to the practice of trading iron ore produced by mines around Lake Matano, near Sorowako, East Luwu. While the Portuguese were the first foreign nation to use the name Celebes to refer to Sulawesi.
Sulawesi is the fourth largest island in Indonesia after Papua, Kalimantan and Sumatra with a land area of 174,600 square kilometers. Its unique shape resembles a spider rose or large K that extends from north to south and three peninsulas that extend northeast, east and southeast. The island is bordered by the Makassar Strait in the west and separated from Kalimantan and also separated from the Maluku Islands by the Maluku Sea. Sulawesi is bordered by Borneo to the west, the Philippines to the north, Flores to the south, Timor to the southeast and Maluku to the east.
Since the 13th century, access to valuable trade goods and sources of iron minerals began to change the old patterns of culture in Sulawesi, and this enabled ambitious individuals to build larger political units. It is not known why these two things appear together, maybe one is the other result. In the 1400s, a number of new agricultural kingdoms had emerged in the west of the Cenrana valley, as well as in the south coast and on the east coast near modern Parepare.
The first Europeans to visit this island (believed to be an archipelago because of its shrinking shape) were Portuguese sailors in 1525, sent from Maluku to look for gold, which the archipelago had a producing reputation. The Dutch arrived in 1605 and were quickly followed by the British, then established a factory in Makassar. Since 1660, the Dutch have been at war with Gowa, the main Makassar on the ruling west coast. In 1669, Admiral Speelman forced the ruler, Sultan Hasanuddin, to sign the Bongaya Agreement, which ceded trade controls to the Dutch East Indies Company. The Dutch were helped in their conquest by the Bugis warlord Arung Palakka, the ruler of the Bugis Bone kingdom. The Dutch built a fort at Ujung Pandang, while Arung Palakka became the regional ruler and the kingdom of Bone became dominant. Political and cultural development seems to have slowed as a result of the status quo. In 1905 the whole of Sulawesi became part of the colony of the Dutch state from the Dutch East Indies until the Japanese occupation in World War II. During the Indonesian National Revolution, “Turk” Westerling Dutch captain killed at least 4,000 people during the South Sulawesi Campaign. After the transfer of sovereignty in December 1949, Sulawesi became part of the Republic of the United States of Indonesia (RIS). And in 1950 it became a part of the Republic of Indonesia.
At the time of Indonesian independence, Sulawesi was a province with an autonomous form of government under the leadership of a Governor. The Province of Sulawesi at that time had its capital in Makassar, with the Governor DR.G.S.S.J. Ratulangi. The form of the provincial government system is a pioneer for further development, to be able to go beyond the times when Sulawesi was in the State of East Indonesia (NIT) and then NIT became a state of the federation of the United States of Indonesia (RIS). When RIS was dissolved and returned to the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia, Sulawesi’s status was reaffirmed as a province. The status of Sulawesi Province then continued until 1960.
In 1964 the Central Sulawesi Regional Level I was formed, which was separated from the North-Central Sulawesi First Level Region, while the North-Central Sulawesi First Level Region was changed to North Sulawesi First Level Region. Likewise, the Southeast Sulawesi Regional Level I was formed separately from the South Sulawesi-Southeast Sulawesi First Level Region, while the South-Southeast Sulawesi First Level Region was changed to the South Sulawesi First Level Region.
Starting in 1999, the use of the term “first-level Region” was eliminated, so that the four regions above have been designated as provinces. Entering the Reformation era along with the emergence of regional splitting with respect to regional autonomy, Gorontalo province was formed in 2000, and then West Sulawesi province in 2004.
The Bugis are the more dominant tribe on Sulawesi Island. Where this tribe can be found everywhere on the island of Sulawesi. The majority of Bugis tribes are traders so it is not surprising that the average market on this island is controlled by the Bugis tribe. The Bugis are a religious group. The Bugis are a tribe that upholds self-respect and dignity. This tribe is very avoiding actions that result in a decrease in self-esteem or dignity of a person.
Bugis are an ethnic group from South Sulawesi. The main characteristic of this ethnic group is language and customs, so Malay and Minangkabau migrants who migrated to Sulawesi since the 15th century as administrative and trading staff in the Gowa Kingdom and have been acculturated, are also categorized as Bugis. Based on the 2000 population census, the Bugis population is around six million. Now the Bugis are also spread in various provinces of Indonesia, such as Southeast Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, Papua, East Kalimantan and South Kalimantan. Many Bugis also migrate abroad.